The contribution of TTORCH to science

In TTORCH much attention will be given to further harmonisation of the measurement techniques and the inter-comparability of the used concentration scales for all the relevant gases and selected isotopic tracers. By using the shared expertise of the participants we will enhance the quality and reliability of the observational systems and work to reach the targets of the WMO expert recommendations for measurement precision and accuracy (WMO; 2005, 2006), see Table 1.
It is clear that the TTORCH Research Network unfortunately can and will not provide any funding for buying and/or replacing equipment and materials, nor support for measurement activities. These actions will have to be funded from other (inter)national programs and projects. Neither does TTorch provide budget for actually performing modelling studies. But within TTORCH we will be able to define (in compliance with ICOS where applicable) collectively the standards for measurements (precision, intercalibration, procedures) and to maximise the usability of the data by coordinating the data processing, transfer and exchange with modellers.
In TTORCH we will bring together the observed concentration data in a uniform database enabling the participants and the modelling community to deploy the shared data relatively easy and fast after acquisition of the data (Activity 1). This database has already been developed as part of the CE-IP project and only needs a small amount of resources to be extended for the purpose of the TTORCH network and to take the additional data for the non-CO2 greenhouse gas observations. Submission of data is on a voluntary basis and subject to a data sharing policy to be developed by the partners and agreed on by the Steering Board in the first 6 months of TTorch.
By organising 1-2 joint international workshops per year in Activity 2 we will bring together the participants but also the observation and modelling communities from within and from outside Europe.
Exchange of young scientists and students between observation sites in Activity 3 will not only enhance the experience of these scientists and therefore contribute to capacity building, but will also allow convergence and improvement of the existing network.
From within the TTORCH coordination activity (Activity 4) we will form an expert panel on high precision chromatography for greenhouse gas ambient measurements that all participants can call for help on measurement issues and that will work pro-actively to advise the participants on their measurements setups and possible improvements in procedures and techniques. Furthermore in this activity 4 the organisation of all activities takes places. For this purpose a qualified coordinating officer will be appointed at ECN. Part of the coordination work also is the setup and implementation of joint papers with measurement and modelling work.
In Activity 5 the reporting and communication with ESF and through the web-site takes place. At least 3 leaflets will be produced describing the setup and later results of the TTORCH network to the general public and the scientific community, with large emphasis on the need of independent verification of emissions of post-Kyoto emission reductions and detection of possible interactions between climate change and natural emissions of for example CH4 and N2O.
The web-site will be used for communication with the interested public, and also for communication between all participants through user-friendly communication forums and a ‘wiki’ approach to build an interactive knowledge base by and for the participants and the general public. The TTorch Network will be presented by posters and contributions to relevant workshops, symposia and congresses.
Every two years the TTORCH network will organise a 5-days summer school on measurements techniques, the interpretation of data series, data selection and the use of data in mesoscale and long range transport modelling (Activity 6). These will be the first summer schools on this subject.
Table 1 Precision and accuracy goals for greenhouse gas observation in the CHIOTTO project and CarboEurope-IP (6th Framework).

Gas species Intra-laboratory instrumental precision Inter-laboratory calibration scale accuracy Precision in %
CO2 0.05 ppm 0.10 ppm 0.01
CH4 2.0 ppb 3.0 ppb 0.1
CO 1.0 ppb 3.0 ppb 0.3
N2O 0.1 ppb 0.2 ppb 0.03
SF6 0.1 ppt 0.2 ppt 1.6
O2/N2 5 per meg 10 per meg 0.0005
Rn 0.2 Bq m-3 or 10% 10% 10
$\delta^{13}C$ CO2 0.007 ‰ 0.01 ‰ 2
$\delta^{18}O$ CO2 0.03 ‰ 0.05 ‰ 2
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